An Annotated Bibliography on AIRLEAP Topics: A Work in Progress

Provided below is merely the beginning of a continually revised, annotated bibliography of published research on topics that relate to integrity and responsible leadership in economics and associated professions. "Published research" in such cases generally includes articles and books by accredited journals and book publishers. It also includes reports, news releases, and official statements of recognized organizations. In this bibliography, citations are provided according to a specific outline, presented below. Only one citation is provided for each unique publication, even if the publication pertains to more than one outline category (in which case, a judgment was made regarding the most relevant category). Where possible, links are provided either to the full publication (if it is freely available on the Internet) or to places in the Internet where the publication could be acquired (such as the website for the publishing journal). Also, in many cases we provide summary descriptions of the publication. Where summary descriptions are not provided, this is a reflection simply of AIRLEAP volunteers not having had enough time to prepare the description. In these cases the description is likely to appear the next time the bibliography is revised.

Authors who have written on AIRLEAP-related topics themselves are especially encouraged to tell us about their work. Authors of the cited work are also welcome to add a small personal comment (of 50 words or less) that we will incorporate as part of the description. As part of this personal note, authors may include their personal websites, where viewers can learn more about the work they have done.

AIRLEAP is simply providing these references as a tool for researchers interested in examining published discourse on AIRLEAP-related topics. AIRLEAP does not necessarily agree with, or advocate, any of the opinions or conclusions expressed in any of these publications. However, for obvious reasons, AIRLEAP will reserve the right to reject suggested additions if they are deemed to be inappropriate for maintaining the overall quality of this bibliography.

I. How Economics Classes Are Taught

I.A. Subject Matter of Economic Classes

Colander, David, “New Millennium Economics: How Did It Get This Way, and What Way is It?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 14 (1), Winter 1999

Economics education has evolved over the past 100 years. Two main topics of change are: the structure of economic education, and the content of what economists do. One particular conclusion is that economists today are not considered over-educated as often as during the 1990s. New Millennium economists receive more individual training on topics relevant to their proposed field.

Colander, David, “Telling Better Stories in Introductory Macro.,” Journal of Economic Perspectives (AEA Papers and Proceedings), Volume 90 Issue 2 May 2000 76-80.

Introductory economics classes involves storytelling. However, when economics professors structure their lectures around formal models, they make the material unnecessarily boring.

Colander, David, “New Millennium Economics: How Did It Get This Way, and What Way is It?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 14 (1), Winter 1999

Economics education has evolved over the past 100 years. Two main topics of change are: the structure of economic education, and the content of what economists do. One particular conclusion is that economists today are not considered over-educated as often as during the 1990s. New Millennium economists receive more individual training on topics relevant to their proposed field.

Colander, David, “Telling Better Stories in Introductory Macro.,” Journal of Economic Perspectives (AEA Papers and Proceedings), Volume 90 Issue 2 May 2000 76-80.

Introductory economics classes involves storytelling. However, when economics professors structure their lectures around formal models, they make the material unnecessarily boring.

Colander, David, “New Millennium Economics: How Did It Get This Way, and What Way is It?,” Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 14 (1), Winter 1999

Economics education has evolved over the past 100 years. Two main topics of change are: the structure of economic education, and the content of what economists do. One particular conclusion is that economists today are not considered over-educated as often as during the 1990s. New Millennium economists receive more individual training on topics relevant to their proposed field.

Colander, David, “Telling Better Stories in Introductory Macro.,” Journal of Economic Perspectives (AEA Papers and Proceedings), Volume 90 Issue 2 May 2000 76-80.

Introductory economics classes involves storytelling. However, when economics professors structure their lectures around formal models, they make the material unnecessarily boring.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The A-Prime C-Prime Theorem,” Eastern Economic Journal, 19 (2 Fall 1993) pp. 235-238

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Economical Writing: An Executive Summary,” Eastern Economic Journal, 25 (2 Spring 1999)

McCloskey, Deirdre, “To Burn Always With a Hard Gemlike Flame Eh Professor?,” Eastern Economic Journal, 20 (4 Fall 1994) pp. 479-481

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Law, Gender and the University,” Journal of Gender, Race, and Justice, 2 (1 Fall, 1998): pp.77-85 Also in (19.) Gender

Streeten, P., “What's wrong with contemporary economics?,” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Vol. 27 (1), March 2002, pgs. 13-24.

Economics instruction should sacrifice some of the more technical, mathematical aspects (which can be acquired later in the course of one's education) in favor of philosophy, political science, and economic history. The author lists three reasons for such a course of action. In doing so, he examines the field of development economics.

Streeten, P., “What�s wrong with contemporary economics?,” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Vol. 27 (1), March 2002, pgs. 13-24.

Economics instruction should sacrifice some of the more technical, mathematical aspects (which can be acquired later in the course of one�s education) in favor of philosophy, political science, and economic history. The author lists three reasons for such a course of action. In doing so, he examines the field of development economics.

Streeten, P., “What�s wrong with contemporary economics?,” Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, Vol. 27 (1), March 2002, pgs. 13-24.

Economics instruction should sacrifice some of the more technical, mathematical aspects (which can be acquired later in the course of one�s education) in favor of philosophy, political science, and economic history. The author lists three reasons for such a course of action. In doing so, he examines the field of development economics.

I.B. Cultural and Psychological Aspects of Economics Classes

Babiak, Peter, “Interview with Deirdre McCloskey Saint Sweet Talkers and the Madwoman in the Economics Department ,” subTerrain, 45 (5 Fall 2006) pp.35-38

Colander, David, “The Aging of an Economist,” Middlebury College Working Paper, 2002

Colander publishes a description of the results of a follow-up survey of professional economists who had been surveyed about 15 years prior when they were just beginning their graduate studies in economics. He draws several conclusions from the comparison of the two studies. For example, the economists are largely content with their graduate training and career. Overall, they now view economics as more of a science, and have become more pro-market and less activist. Furthermore, the economists have become more interested in empirical work and less concerned with theory.

Colander, David, “The Aging of an Economist,” Middlebury College Working Paper, 2002

Colander publishes a description of the results of a follow-up survey of professional economists who had been surveyed about 15 years prior when they were just beginning their graduate studies in economics. He draws several conclusions from the comparison of the two studies. For example, the economists are largely content with their graduate training and career. Overall, they now view economics as more of a science, and have become more pro-market and less activist. Furthermore, the economists have become more interested in empirical work and less concerned with theory.

Colander, David, “The Aging of an Economist,” Middlebury College Working Paper, 2002

Colander publishes a description of the results of a follow-up survey of professional economists who had been surveyed about 15 years prior when they were just beginning their graduate studies in economics. He draws several conclusions from the comparison of the two studies. For example, the economists are largely content with their graduate training and career. Overall, they now view economics as more of a science, and have become more pro-market and less activist. Furthermore, the economists have become more interested in empirical work and less concerned with theory.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Christian Economics?,” Eastern Economic Journal, 25 (4) Fall 1999 pp.477-480

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Importing Religion Into Economics,” Faith and Economics, 2006

McCloskey, Deirdre, “What Would Jesus Spend? Why Being a Good Christian Won't Hurt the Economy. ,” In Character 1 (2004). Linked at Wall Streeet Journal, Opinion Journal, November 7, 2004

Reprinted in the Christian Century May 4,2004 pp. 24-30. Now entitled "Thrift, Economy, and God."

Ziliak, Stephen T., “Haiku Economics: Little Teaching Aids for Big Economic Pluralists,” International Journal of Pluralism and Economics Education, vol. 1, no. 1, May 2009

Haiku is a distinguished (if short) form of poetry with roots dating back to 17th century Japan. Poets understand that haiku is the most efficient form of economic speech. But technical efficiency is not the only or even the main goal of writing haiku. Haiku clear a trail for enlightenment and stimulate open discussion. A wide variety of poets, from Matsuo Bashō (1644-1694) to Richard Wright (1908-1960), have practiced writing haiku simply to improve their own powers of observation. To date, haiku and economics have not been explored together, and certainly not at the level of principles. This article introduces a new field of inquiry, "haiku economics," and offers tips on how to the start the journey in a classroom setting.

I.C. Dissertations and the Training of Ph.D. Candidates

Boschini, Anne D., Matthew D. Lindquist, Jan Pettersson and Jesper Roine, “2004.Learning To Lose A Leg: Casualties Of Phd Economics Training In Stockholm,” Econ Journal Watch

Abstract: The Swedish Economist Assar Lindbeck has recently expressed concern that PhD programs are not educating enough “two-legged” economists. We surveyed all PhD students enrolled at Stockholm University and the Stockholm School of Economics—strong European graduate programs that have adopted the US-style curriculum. . . . Students enter with a relatively broad academic background, an interest in the social sciences, and a desire to serve the community. They do not enter graduate school with a primary interest in statistics or mathematical work. They find that incentives within the program do not encourage participation in the policy debate. To the extent that new PhDs are “one-legged” economists, it is not because they entered graduate school that way. . . .We consider the possibility that in each case the process that generates expectations of those entering had not caught up to the changes, resulting in palpable dissatisfaction among the currently enrolled students.

Boschini, Anne D., Matthew D. Lindquist, Jan Pettersson and Jesper Roine, “2004.Learning To Lose A Leg: Casualties Of Phd Economics Training In Stockholm,” Econ Journal Watch, 1(2): 369-379.

Abstract: The Swedish Economist Assar Lindbeck has recently expressed concern that PhD programs are not educating enough �two-legged� economists. We surveyed all PhD students enrolled at Stockholm University and the Stockholm School of Economics�strong European graduate programs that have adopted the US-style curriculum. . . . Students enter with a relatively broad academic background, an interest in the social sciences, and a desire to serve the community. They do not enter graduate school with a primary interest in statistics or mathematical work. They find that incentives within the program do not encourage participation in the policy debate. To the extent that new PhDs are �one-legged� economists, it is not because they entered graduate school that way. . . .We consider the possibility that in each case the process that generates expectations of those entering had not caught up to the changes, resulting in palpable dissatisfaction among the currently enrolled students.

Boschini, Anne D., Matthew D. Lindquist, Jan Pettersson and Jesper Roine, “2004.Learning To Lose A Leg: Casualties Of Phd Economics Training In Stockholm,” Econ Journal Watch, 1(2): 369-379.

Abstract: The Swedish Economist Assar Lindbeck has recently expressed concern that PhD programs are not educating enough �two-legged� economists. We surveyed all PhD students enrolled at Stockholm University and the Stockholm School of Economics�strong European graduate programs that have adopted the US-style curriculum. . . . Students enter with a relatively broad academic background, an interest in the social sciences, and a desire to serve the community. They do not enter graduate school with a primary interest in statistics or mathematical work. They find that incentives within the program do not encourage participation in the policy debate. To the extent that new PhDs are �one-legged� economists, it is not because they entered graduate school that way. . . .We consider the possibility that in each case the process that generates expectations of those entering had not caught up to the changes, resulting in palpable dissatisfaction among the currently enrolled students.

Colander, David C. and Arjo Klamer, “The Making of an Economist, Redux,” Princeton University Press

Economists seem to be everywhere in the media these days. But what exactly do today's economists do? What and how are they taught? Updating David Colander and Arjo Klamer's classic "The Making of an Economist," this book shows what is happening in elite U.S. economics Ph.D. programs. By examining these programs, Colander gives a view of cutting-edge economics--and a glimpse at its likely future. And by comparing economics education today to the findings of the original book, the new book shows how much--and in what ways--the field has changed over the past two decades. The original book led to a reexamination of graduate education by the profession, and has been essential reading for prospective graduate students. Like its predecessor, "The Making of an Economist, Redux" is likely to provoke discussion within economics and beyond.The book includes new interviews with students at Harvard, Princeton, Stanford, MIT, Chicago, and Columbia. In these conversations, the students--the next generation of elite economists--colorfully and frankly describe what they think of their field and what graduate economics education is really like. The book concludes with reflections by Colander, Klamer, and Robert Solow.This inside look at the making of economists will interest anyone who wants to better understand the economics profession.

Glenn, David, “Economists Call for Rethinking of Core Course Work for Ph.D.'s in the Discipline,” Chronical of Higher Education, January 7, 2008

"Doctoral programs in economics should radically redesign the grueling first-year course work known as 'the core,' several prominent scholars said on Friday during a panel here at the annual meeting of the American Economic Association."

Johansson, Dan, “Economics without Entrepreneurship or Insitutions: A Vocabulary Analysis of Graduate Textbooks,” Economic Journal Watch, 1(3): 515-538.

"A teacher’s words reflect the theory and methods he uses. Words reveal theoretical structures, the problems identified as relevant, and how those problems should be analyzed. . . . In my judgment, the results constitute powerful evidence that today’s doctoral programs do not train young economists to identify and analyze important economic issues in a relevant way."

Krueger, Anne and NULL et al., “1991. Report of the Commission on Graduate Education in Economics,” Journal of Economic Literature, 29(September): 1035-1053.

Krueger, Anne and NULL et al., “1991. Report of the Commission on Graduate Education in Economics,” Journal of Economic Literature, 29(September): 1035-1053.

Krueger, Anne and NULL et al., “1991. Report of the Commission on Graduate Education in Economics,” Journal of Economic Literature, 29(September): 1035-1053.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “"Aunt Deirdre"s Letter to a Graduate Student",” Eastern Economic Journal, 23 (2) Spring 1997 pp. 241-244

McCloskey, Deirdre, Bowen and Rudenstine, “In Pursuit of the PhD: A Review Article,” Change, 26 1 Jan/Feb 1994

McCloskey, Deirdre, Bowen and Rudenstine, “In Pursuit of the PhD: A Review Article,” Economics of Education Review, 4 (1993) pp.359-365

McCloskey, Deirdre, “How to be a Good Graduate Student,” Eastern Economic Journal, 26 (4 Fall 2000) pp.487-490

II. Economics as an Objective Science

II.A. Is Economics Acceptable as a Form of Rhetoric?

Klamer, Arjo and Deirdre McCloskey, “The Rhetoric of Disagreement,” Rethinking Marxism, Marxism 2 (Fall 1989): 140-161.

Reprinted in D. H. Prychitko, ed. Why Economists Disagree, Albany: SUNY Press, 1998.

Levy, David M. and Sandra M. Peart, “Inducing Greater Transparency: Towards the Establishment of Ethical Rules for Econometrics,” Eastern Economic Journal

An earlier version of this paper was presented at the 2003 Joint Statistical Meetings and the George Mason Summer Institute for the Preservation of the History of Economics in Economics. We have benefitted from the comments of William Seltzer and Margo Anderson and, especially, this journal's referee. The paper began with a conversation between Levy and Paul David at the Economics of Science Conference at Notre Dame in April 1997 and was greatly stimulated by Perci Diaconis's as yet unpublished 1998 IMS Lecture. Preliminary versions were presented at the George Washington University Economics Seminar, the 1999 Canadian Law and Economics Association meetings, the George Mason Statistics Department Seminar, and the University of Alberta Econometrics Seminar. We have benefitted from comments from James Buchanan, Adolf Buse, Roger Congleton, Tyler Cowen, Mark Crain, Don Gantz, Jim Gentle, Bruce Kobayashi, David Meiselman, John Miller, David Ribar, Robert Tollison, and other participants. The command files to replicate the Monte Carlo study are available upon request.

McCloskey, Deirdre N., “The Rhetoric of Economics,” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jun. 1983), pp. 481-517.

McCloskey, Deirdre N., “The Rhetoric of Economics (2nd ed.),” Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998

To make her case McCloskey shows that the effectiveness of the leading figures in the discipline is enhanced when they stray from the modernist canon. It is not experimental or statistical tests that determine the acceptance of their arguments, it is the rhetoric deployed in making them. In his classic Foundations of Economic Analysis Samuelson sometimes used mathematics not because it is necessary to the argument but to impress. He legitimates his claims through appeals to authority. He uses analogy or metaphor. So does ‘the Kipling of the economic empire’ (p.42), Gary Becker, when he treats children as consumer durables (like refrigerators). … In identifying and analyzing the rhetorical content in the writings of a number of distinguished economists she is not trying to debunk them. She simply wants to make the case that economic knowledge advances through procedures that diverge wildly from those incorporated in the modernist canon.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Splenetic Rationalism: Hoppe's Review of Chapter 1 of The Rhetoric of Economics,” Market Process, 7 (1) Spring 1989: 34-41

Reprinted in Peter J. Boettke and David L. Prychitdo, eds. The Market Process: Essays on Contemporary Austrian Economics (Edward Elgar, 1994) pp. 187-200.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Rhetoric of Liberty,” Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 26 (1) 1996 pp.9-27

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Knowledge and Persuasion in Economics,” Cambridge University Press , (1994 ) 446 pp.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Essential Rhetoric of Law, Literature and Liberty[ review of Posner's Law as Literature, Fish's ,” Critical Review, 5 (1 Spring1991) pp. 203-223

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Rhetoric of Economic Expertise,” The Recovery of Rhetoric: Persuasive Discourse and Disciplinarity in the Human Sciences, 1993. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1993. Richard H. Roberts and J.M.M. Good eds.

In French as "La Rhetorique de L'expertise Economique in Rhetorique de la Science Paris:Presse Universitaires de France Vincent de Coorebyter ed. in the series "L'interrogation Philosophique,"pp.171-188 M. Meyer ed.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Rhetoric of Economic Development: Rethinking Development Economics,” Cato Journal, 7 (Spring/Summer 1987): pp. 249-254

Reprinted with minor revisions in "The Revolution in Development Economics" 1993 James Dorn and A.A.Walters eds.

McCloskey, Deirdre N., “The Rhetoric of Economics,” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jun. 1983), pp. 481-517.

McCloskey, Deirdre N., “The Rhetoric of Economics (2nd ed.),” Madison, 'Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Pres, 1998

Review of the book by Michael R. Smith, Department of Sociology, McGill University: (www.cjsonline.ca/reviews/rhetecon.html) �To make her case McCloskey shows that the effectiveness of the leading figures in the discipline is enhanced when they stray from the modernist canon. It is not experimental or statistical tests that determine the acceptance of their arguments, it is the rhetoric deployed in making them. In his classic Foundations of Economic Analysis Samuelson sometimes used mathematics not because it is necessary to the argument but to impress. He legitimates his claims through appeals to authority. He uses analogy or metaphor. So does �the Kipling of the economic empire� (p.42), Gary Becker, when he treats children as consumer durables (like refrigerators). � In identifying and analyzing the rhetorical content in the writings of a number of distinguished economists she is not trying to debunk them. She simply wants to make the case that economic knowledge advances through procedures that diverge wildly from those incorporated in the modernist canon.�

McCloskey, Deirdre N., “The Rhetoric of Economics,” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jun. 1983), pp. 481-517.

McCloskey, Deirdre N., “The Rhetoric of Economics (2nd ed.),” Madison, 'Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Pres, 1998

Review of the book by Michael R. Smith, Department of Sociology, McGill University: (www.cjsonline.ca/reviews/rhetecon.html) �To make her case McCloskey shows that the effectiveness of the leading figures in the discipline is enhanced when they stray from the modernist canon. It is not experimental or statistical tests that determine the acceptance of their arguments, it is the rhetoric deployed in making them. In his classic Foundations of Economic Analysis Samuelson sometimes used mathematics not because it is necessary to the argument but to impress. He legitimates his claims through appeals to authority. He uses analogy or metaphor. So does �the Kipling of the economic empire� (p.42), Gary Becker, when he treats children as consumer durables (like refrigerators). � In identifying and analyzing the rhetorical content in the writings of a number of distinguished economists she is not trying to debunk them. She simply wants to make the case that economic knowledge advances through procedures that diverge wildly from those incorporated in the modernist canon.�

II.B. Should Economists be Like Natural Scientists?

Havrilesky, Thomas, “Those Who Only Remember the Past May Be Doomed to Repeat Its Mistakes,” Journal of Forensic Economics

The well trained economist is first a theorist, second a social scientist and last a number cruncher. The thoughtless extrapolation of historical data on interest rates and compensation growth rates conflicts with modern economic theory. It also contrasts starkly with knowledge regarding recent changes in the political-economic structure. Of course, it is possible that the historical extrapolationists could be right. If they are, then market participants should be hedging against the imminent decline in interest rates and rise in compensation growth rates. Such activity would, of course, narrow the gap and prove the extrapolationists right. Inasmuch as this has not yet occurred, the market has passed its judgment on their views.

Klein, Daniel, “Who is the practitioner of political economy?,” Challenge, 1998; 41, 5; General Interest Module, pp. 113-120.

"This economist urges other economists to take up the practice of political economy again. Otherwise, it is left to those who know little economics themselves."

McCloskey, Deirdre, “What's Wrong With the Earth Charter,” Eastern Economic Journal, EER 28 (2 2002) pp.269-272

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Writing as a Responsibility of Science: A Reply to Laband and Taylor,” Economic Inquiry, 30 Oct. 1992 pp.689-695

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Agon and Ag Ec: Styles of Persuasion in Agricultural Economics,” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 72 (Dec 1990) pp.1124-1130

Payson, Steven, “Regardless of philosophy, economics will not be a science until it is based on science,” Journal of Post-Keynesian Economics, Vol. 19; No.2; Winter 1996-97; pp. 257-274.

Payson, Steven, “Economics, Science and Technology,” (Edward Elgar, 2000)

Publisher’s Description: “Economists need to understand some fundamental aspects of science in order to measure and analyse the process of technological change. This book explores the interrelationships between economics, science and technology in order to find ways of improving economists? approaches to technical change. Dr Payson begins by offering a scientific critique of economic discourse and presents a unique, unconstrained and critical view of the behavioral differences between economists and scientists. The economic literature on technological change is analysed in order to assess economists’ approach to science. The author then offers concrete solutions for the useful economic study of technological change including alternative methods of classifying data based on scientific principles, a characteristics approach to measuring physical capital, and a futuristic exploration into how artificial intelligence may improve economics.”

Payson, Steven, “Regardless of philosophy, economics will not be a science until it is based on science,” Journal of Post-Keynesian Economics, Vol. 19; No.2; Winter 1996-97; pp. 257-274.

Payson, Steven, “Economics, Science and Technology,” (Edward Elgar, 2000)

Publisher�s Description: �Economists need to understand some fundamental aspects of science in order to measure and analyse the process of technological change. This book explores the interrelationships between economics, science and technology in order to find ways of improving economists? approaches to technical change. Dr Payson begins by offering a scientific critique of economic discourse and presents a unique, unconstrained and critical view of the behavioral differences between economists and scientists. The economic literature on technological change is analysed in order to assess economists� approach to science. The author then offers concrete solutions for the useful economic study of technological change including alternative methods of classifying data based on scientific principles, a characteristics approach to measuring physical capital, and a futuristic exploration into how artificial intelligence may improve economics.�

Payson, Steven, “Regardless of philosophy, economics will not be a science until it is based on science,” Journal of Post-Keynesian Economics, Vol. 19; No.2; Winter 1996-97; pp. 257-274.

Payson, Steven, “Economics, Science and Technology,” (Edward Elgar, 2000)

Publisher�s Description: �Economists need to understand some fundamental aspects of science in order to measure and analyse the process of technological change. This book explores the interrelationships between economics, science and technology in order to find ways of improving economists? approaches to technical change. Dr Payson begins by offering a scientific critique of economic discourse and presents a unique, unconstrained and critical view of the behavioral differences between economists and scientists. The economic literature on technological change is analysed in order to assess economists� approach to science. The author then offers concrete solutions for the useful economic study of technological change including alternative methods of classifying data based on scientific principles, a characteristics approach to measuring physical capital, and a futuristic exploration into how artificial intelligence may improve economics.�

Solem, Håvard, “The Methodology of Economics; its Relations to Natural Science; and Implications for Understanding Eco-Efficiency,” Department of Economics; Norwegian University of Science and Technology; N-7491 Trondheim; Norway - acquired from the Internet on July 1 2007.

Solem, H�vard, “The Methodology of Economics; its Relations to Natural Science; and Implications for Understanding Eco-Efficiency,” Department of Economics; Norwegian University of Science and Technology; N-7491 Trondheim; Norway - acquired from the Internet on July 1 2007.

Solem, H�vard, “The Methodology of Economics; its Relations to Natural Science; and Implications for Understanding Eco-Efficiency,” Department of Economics; Norwegian University of Science and Technology; N-7491 Trondheim; Norway - acquired from the Internet on July 1 2007.

II.C. Is There Integrity When Economics is Practiced as an Art?

Chan, Sewell, “Academic Economists to Consider Ethics Code,” New York Times, December 30, 2010

DeMartino, George, “A Professional Ethics Code for Economists,” Challenge, 2005, vol. 48, issue 4, pages 88-104.

"Perhaps economists would not need a professional ethics code if they knew with certainty what the outcomes of their policies would be. But they do not, and therefore they should abide by a higher standard of conduct."

DeMartino, George, “On the Need for Professional Economic Ethics ,” Economist, January 6, 2011

DeMartino, George, “Full Disclosure in Economics -- The Role of Economic Associations,” TripleCrisis.com, January 14, 2011

DeMartino, George, “A Professional Ethics Code for Economists,” Challenge, Volume 48; Issue 4 July/August 2005 88-104

�There is an urgent need today to rectify an enormously consequential omission in economic training and practice. Like virtually all other professions that bear the weight of social impact, economics needs a body of professional ethics. Its field of action today is enormous, and its influence is immense. Yet it has no professional ethics. Now that is a thought over which we had all better lose some sleep.� (p. 102)

DeMartino, George, “A Professional Ethics Code for Economists,” Challenge, Volume 48; Issue 4 July/August 2005 88-104

�There is an urgent need today to rectify an enormously consequential omission in economic training and practice. Like virtually all other professions that bear the weight of social impact, economics needs a body of professional ethics. Its field of action today is enormous, and its influence is immense. Yet it has no professional ethics. Now that is a thought over which we had all better lose some sleep.� (p. 102)

Epstein, Gerald, “Ethics and Credibility at the American Economics Association,” TripleCrisis.com, December 20, 2010

Glaeser, Edward L., “Where to Draw a Line on Ethics,” New York Times, January 4, 2011

Klein, Daniel B., “Sense and Sensibilities: Myrdal’s Plea for Self-Disclosure and Some Disclosures on AEA Members,” Econ Journal Watch, Vol. 3, No.1, pp.180-205.

Gunnar Myrdal urged economists to disclose their ideological sensibilities, to mitigate asymmetric-information problems in scientific discourse and to reduce the hazard of bias. Myrdal’s plea informs us of the importance of frank discussion of ideological sensibilities, including investigations of the ideological character of people involved in the American Economic Association. This paper reviews the results of several such investigations, including new results on rates of AEA membership by voter category.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Economics: Art or Science or Who Cares? ,” Eastern Economic Journal, 20 (1 Winter 1994) pp.117-120

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Missing Ethics in Economics,” The Value of Culture on the Relationships Between Economics and Arts. pp.187-201 Arjo Klamer ed.., Amsterdam: (Amsterdam University Press 1996)

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Not by P Alone: A Virtuous Economy,” Review of Political Economy, special issue on ethics in economics Irene van Staveren ed.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Review of Wayne Booth The Company We Keep: An Ethics of Fiction,” Chicago Tribune Book World, Dec 25 1988 Sec. 14 p.5

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Ethics, Milton Friedman and the Good Old Chicago School,” presented to the History of Economics Society meetings of the ASSA Chicago, 2007

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Duty and Creativity in Economic Scholarship,” Passion and Craft: Economists at Work, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press (1999) Michael Szenberg ed.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Duty and Creativity in Economic Scholarship: Economists at Work,” A Passion for Research , Sarah Philipson ed.

Siegler, Kirk, “Should Economists Reveal Who Pays Them?,” National Public Radio, 2011

Svaldi, Aldo, “Economic Association Weighs Ethics Code,” Denver Post, January 7, 2011

The Economist, ., “Do Economists Need a Code of Conduct?,” Economist, January 7, 2011

III. Breadth of Economists' Perspectives

III.A. Ability of Economists to Recognize the Importance of Other Disciplines

Angner, Erik, “Economist as experts: Overconfidence in theory and pratice,” Journal of Economic Methodology, 'Economic Theory & Philosphy', Volume 13, Issue 1 March 2006

Abstract: "Drawing on research in the psychology of judgment and decision making, I argue that individual economists acting as experts in matters of public policy are likely to be victims of significant overconfidence. The case is based on the pervasiveness of the phenomenon, the nature of the task facing economists-as-experts, and the character of the institutional constraints under which they operate. Moreover, I argue that economist overconfidence can have dramatic consequences. Finally, I explore how the negative consequences of overconfidence can be mitigated, and how the phenomenon can be reduced or eliminated. As a case study, I discuss the involvement of Western experts in post-communist Russian economic reforms." Keywords: overconfidence; calibration; economists; experts; public policy; Russian reforms

Coyle, Diane, “The Soulful Science: What Economists Really Do and Why It Matters,” Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press; 2007

Diane Coyle describes how economics today is more soulful than dismal. Better data, increased computing power, and new techniques are enabling economists to make huge progress when analyzing human behavior. By examining the humanization of economics in recent decades, Coyle shows how economists are tackling the most fundamental problems and helping save the world.

Coyle, Diane, “The Soulful Science: What Economists Really Do and Why It Matters,” Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press; 2007

Diane Coyle describes how economics today is more soulful than dismal. Better data, increased computing power, and new techniques are enabling economists to make huge progress when analyzing human behavior. By examining the humanization of economics in recent decades, Coyle shows how economists are tackling the most fundamental problems and helping save the world.

Coyle, Diane, “The Soulful Science: What Economists Really Do and Why It Matters,” Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press; 2007

Diane Coyle describes how economics today is more soulful than dismal. Better data, increased computing power, and new techniques are enabling economists to make huge progress when analyzing human behavior. By examining the humanization of economics in recent decades, Coyle shows how economists are tackling the most fundamental problems and helping save the world.

McCloskey, Deirdre N., “Humility and Truth,” Anglican Theological Review, 88 (2, May 2006): 181-96.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Some News That at Least Will Not Bore You ,” Eastern Economic Journal, 21 (4 fall 1995) pp. 551-553

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Some News That at Least Will Not Bore You,” Lingua Franca, early spring 1996

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Some News That at Least Will Not Bore You (shortened version),” Harper's, July 1996

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Humility and Truth in Economics,” Humane Economics: Essays in Honor of Don Lavoie, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar (2006) pp.173-177 Jack High ed.

III.B. Ability of Economists to Acknowledge Non-economic Societal Objectives

Bourke, India, “Integrity in Economics: Dr. Klaus Leisinger on Business and Human Rights,” Exeter College, University of Oxford. 2006. 16 Apr 2007

India Bourke describes a speech given by Dr. Klaus Leisinger to a group of students. Dr. Leisinger advocates respect for human rights, enlightened management, and concern for the welfare of those involved in businesses worldwide. Especially with the globalizing economy, big corporations should set the example. Not only are these business practices socially desirable, but they are good for business too.

Bourke, India, “Integrity in Economics: Dr. Klaus Leisinger on Business and Human Rights,” Exeter College, University of Oxford. 2006. 16 Apr 2007

India Bourke describes a speech given by Dr. Klaus Leisinger to a group of students. Dr. Leisinger advocates respect for human rights, enlightened management, and concern for the welfare of those involved in businesses worldwide. Especially with the globalizing economy, big corporations should set the example. Not only are these business practices socially desirable, but they are good for business too.

Bourke, India, “Integrity in Economics: Dr. Klaus Leisinger on Business and Human Rights,” Exeter College, University of Oxford. 2006. 16 Apr 2007

India Bourke describes a speech given by Dr. Klaus Leisinger to a group of students. Dr. Leisinger advocates respect for human rights, enlightened management, and concern for the welfare of those involved in businesses worldwide. Especially with the globalizing economy, big corporations should set the example. Not only are these business practices socially desirable, but they are good for business too.

Deirdre, McCloskey, “"The Bourgeois Virtues",” World Economics, (5 ) July- September 2004 pp.1-16

DeMartino, George F., “The Economist's Oath: On the Need for and Content of Professional Economic Ethics,” Oxford University Press, 2011.

Goodwin, Neva R., “As if the Future Mattered: Translating Social and Economic Theory into Human Behavior,” The University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor

There has never been a better time to explore the ways in which values relating to the future can be preserved and nurtured despite contemporary capitalism's tendency toward shortsighted selfishness. Prevailing beliefs in the 1980s were especially permissive regarding notions of individualism. While the concern for the future displayed by human beings throughout history may not be less today than at other times, a wide variance persists in how individuals, firms, and other institutions indicate concern for the future—some act as though only concerned about tomorrow, others as though concerned for perpetuity. Thus it is especially relevant now to inquire what can be done, through changes in institutional arrangements or fashions of thought and perception, to encourage future-regarding tendencies.

McCloskey, Deirdre N., “The Demoralization of Economics: Can We Recover from Bentham and Return to Smith?,” Feminism Confronts Homo Economicus: Gender, Economics, and the Law (Cornell Univeristy Press, 2005), Martha Fineman and Terence Dougherty, eds.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Post-Modern Free-Market Feminism: A Conversation with Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak ,” Rethinking Marxism , Winter 2000 (12 [4] )

McCloskey, Deirdre, “It's Good to be a Don if You're Going to be a Deirdre,” Times Higher Education Supplement, August 23,1996 1 Page

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Love and Money; A Comment on the Markets Debate,” Feminist Economics, 2 (2 summer 1996) pp. 137-140

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Simulating Barbara,” Feminist Economics, 4 (3 Fall 1998) pp. 181-186

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Free Market Feminism 101,” Eastern Economic Journal, 26 (3 Summer) pp. 363-365

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Love or Money,” Eastern Economic Journal, 22 (1 Winter 1996) pp. 97-100

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Bourgeois Virtues,” History Today, 56 Sept. 2006 pp. 20-27

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Bourgeois Virtues: Ethics for an Age of Commerce,” University of Chicago Press, July 2006 PP.616 + xviii

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Bourgeois Virtue 1000 words,” in Patricia Werhane and E.R. Freeman eds., Blackwell Encycl. Dictionary of Business Ethics, 2nd ed., Blackwell: Malden MA and London (1997), pp.44-46

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Bourgeois Blues Reason 25,” reprinted in Morality of Markets..Academic Foundation/Centre for Civil Society (India), May 1 1993 pp. 47-51 Parth J. Shah ed

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Bourgeois Blues Reason 25,” reprinted in Exchanges: Reading and Writing About Consumer Culture, Longman 2001 Ted Lardner and Todd Lundberg eds.

McCloskey, Deirdre , “Review of Bailey"s The Man Who Would Be Queen,” Reason, November 2003

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Review of Bailey's The Man Who Would Be Queen,” Independent Gay Forum, November 2003

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Avarice Prudence and the Bourgeois Virtues,” Having: Property and Possession in Religious and Social Life, Grand Rapids Michigan: Eerdmans 2004 William Shweiker and Charles Matthewes eds.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Hobbes Problem from Hobbes to Buchanan,” First Annual Buchanan Lecture, April 7 2006 George Mason University

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Eighteenth-Century Virtues: Smith and Franklin ,” My Bourgeois Towns: How European Capitalism Became Virtuous, 2 chapters pp. 1600-1848 in preparation

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Hobbes, Rawls, Buchanan, Nussbaum and All the Virtues 11500-word essay,” American Political Science Review, under review

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Last of the Former Virtue Ethicists 11000 word essay,” The Elgar Companion to Adam Smith, forthcoming 2008 Jeffrey Young ed.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Prehistory of American Thrift 10,000-word manuscript ,” forhcoming in Thrift and American Culture, under review by Princeton University Press, Josh Yates ed.

McCloskey, Deirdre , “Thrift as a Virtue, Historically Criticized 30 pg MS,” Hedgehog Review, Forthcoming late 2007?

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Hobbes, Nussbaum and All Seven of the Virtues 1400-word comment at conference at the Institute of,” Social Studies, Den Haag, March 10 2006 on "Nussbaum and Cosmopolitanism

in a special isuue of Development and Change 37 (6) 2006 Des Gasper ed.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Bourgeois Virtue and the History of P and S, Presidential Address,” presented at the Economic History Association, New Brunswick, Nj , September 1997, published in the Journal of Economic History 58(2 June 1998)

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Bourgeois Virtue and the History of P and S, Presidential Address,” presented at the Economic History Association, New Brunswick, Nj , September 1997, published in the Journal of Economic History 58(2 June 1998)

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Bourgeois Virtue, ,” American Scholar, 63 (2 Spring 1994) pp.177-191

Reprinted in Occasional Papers of the Centre for Independent Studies, New South Wales (short version reprinted in the Phi Beta Kappa Key Reporter, Fall 1994). Reprinted in Morality and the Market (McGraw- Hill, 2001) Eugene Heath ed.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoise, comment on Sandra Harding's Can Feminist Thought Make ,” Economics More Objective?" Feminist Economics , 1 (3, Fall 1995): pp.119-124

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Notre Dame Loses,” EER 2003 29 (2):pp.309 315

McCloskey, Deirdre , “He's Smart and He's a Nice Guy Too.,” EER, 21(1 Winter 1995) pp. 109-112

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Why I am No Longer a Positivist,” Review of Social Economy, 47 (3, Fall 1989):pp. 225-238

Reprinted in"Tales of Narcissus- The Looking Glass of Economic Science" New York: Nova Science 2003. PP.189-202 Craig Freedman and Rick Szostak eds.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Samuel Cameron. The Economics of Sin: Rational Choice or No Choice at all?,” Time Higher Education Supplemant, January 2004

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Secret Sins of Economics 2002.,” Prickly Paradigm Pamphlets (Marshall Sahlins,ed.) , Universtiy of Chicago Press 60 pp.

Trans. in Persian 2006.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Vices of Economists; The Virtues of the Bourgeoise.,” Universtiy of Amsterdam Press and Universtiy of Mchigan Press (1997)

Dutch translation 1997 Harry van Dalen. Japanese translation with new preface for Japanese readers by McClosky, Tokoyo: Chikuma Shobo Ltd.2002

McCloskey, Dierdre, “Some Consequences of a Conjective Economics,” Beyond Economic Man: Feminism and Economics., Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1993 pp. 69-93 Julie Nelson and Marianne Ferber eds.

The book was translated into Spanish "Mas Alla del Hombre Economico: Economiay Teoria Feminista" in Ediciones Catedra in its "Feminismos" series in 2004.

IV. Usefulness of Economic Discourse

IV.A. Avoidance of "Empty Formalism" and "Physics Envy"

Anderson, Susan and Peter Boettke, “The Character of the Journal of Development Economics,” Econ Journal Watch, 2002, Volume 1(2): 306-318.

"We survey the six issues of the Journal of Development Economics that were published in 2002 in an effort to test the proposition that the field of development economics has been transformed by the institutional choice perspective in economics and political economy, and by the accumulating evidence on the failed policies of development assistance. These radical departures from business as usual research in development economics are evident in scholarly books, popular books, and public policy discussions. As we document, however, neither the theoretical perspective of institutional economics nor the empirical record of failed policy have had that significant of an impact on the field of development economics as reflected in the Journal of Development Economics. We find that the research agendas of scholars in the field mirror the research mandates of the leading international agencies and that the mode of argumentation attempts to mimic the professional biases in the economics profession toward formalism, and both of these forces conspire to limit the creativity and engagement with real problems of public policy by the "Development Set."

Coyle, Diane, “Pride and Prejudice: What's Good and Bad About Economics,” World Economics 4(2003): 1-6

Economics is an extremely useful discipline. While the analytical rigour employed by economists is admirable, the application of the scientific method in economics has been taken to an unproductive extreme.

Coyle, Diane, “Pride and Prejudice: What's Good and Bad About Economics,” World Economics 4(2003): 1-6

Economics is an extremely useful discipline. While the analytical rigour employed by economists is admirable, the application of the scientific method in economics has been taken to an unproductive extreme.

Coyle, Diane, “Pride and Prejudice: What's Good and Bad About Economics,” World Economics 4(2003): 1-6

Economics is an extremely useful discipline. While the analytical rigour employed by economists is admirable, the application of the scientific method in economics has been taken to an unproductive extreme.

Gay, Daniel, “Politics versus economics: keeping it real,” Post-autistic Economics Review, Issue no. 19; April 2; 2003; article 1

Gay, Daniel, “Politics versus economics: keeping it real,” Post-autistic Economics Review, Issue no. 19; April 2; 2003; article 1

Gay, Daniel, “Politics versus economics: keeping it real,” Post-autistic Economics Review, Issue no. 19; April 2; 2003; article 1

Gibson, Warren C., “The Mathematical Romance:An Engineer's View of Mathematical Economics,” Econ Journal Watch 2(1) pp 149-158

Mathematical economics is compared and contrasted with mathematical engineering. Engineers use mathematics where it is practical and cost-effective, sometimes cutting corners, and leaving theorems and derivations to professional mathematicians. In contrast papers by mathematical economists are often loaded with theorems and lemmas, with only the slightest suggestion that human affairs are involved. I conclude that some economists have fallen for the romance of mathematics, as engineers occasionally do,and that considerable time and talent has been wasted in the process.

Klein, Daniel B., “A Plea to Economists Who Favor Liberty: Assist the Everyman,” The Institute of Economic Affairs, 2001

"To become more influential and to improve the quality of decision-making, particularly by government, economists should learn how to appeal to the ‘Everyman’. They should, says Klein, make ‘sensible and informed use of basic economic insights and low-tech forms of evidence’. High standards of research depend on a degree of scholasticism, but it is too much emphasised.Scholastic norms should be relaxed to encourage teaching and research which are relevant to policy." (pages 13-14)

Klemperer, Paul, “Alfred Marshall Lecture: Using and Abusing Economic Theory,” European Economic Association 1(2006): 272-300

Too much emphasis on advanced economic theory occurs at the expense of the overall economy and political climate. Sometimes there is a trade-off between economically and politically significant distinctions between policy prescriptions.

Klemperer, Paul, “Alfred Marshall Lecture: Using and Abusing Economic Theory,” European Economic Association 1(2006): 272-300

Too much emphasis on advanced economic theory occurs at the expense of the overall economy and political climate. Sometimes there is a trade-off between economically and politically significant distinctions between policy prescriptions.

Klemperer, Paul, “Alfred Marshall Lecture: Using and Abusing Economic Theory,” European Economic Association 1(2006): 272-300

Too much emphasis on advanced economic theory occurs at the expense of the overall economy and political climate. Sometimes there is a trade-off between economically and politically significant distinctions between policy prescriptions.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Milton,” Eastern Economic Journal, 29 EER 2003 (1) pp. 143-146

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Reply to Jack High,” Economic Inquiry, Late 1980's

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Reply to Peter Mueser,” American Sociologist, 21 (1 Spring 1990) pp. 26-28

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Arrogance of Economic Theorists [German translation as ,” Okonomische Rechenkunste im Zwielicht, 31 August/1 Sept. 1991 pg 85 in the series Themen und Thesen der Wirtschaft

Reprinted in English in Swiss Review of World Affairs 41 (7, Oct. 1991) pp. 11-12

Thompson, Herb, “Ignorance and Ideological Hegemony: A Critique of Neoclassical Economics,” Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, 8(1997): 291-305

Neoclassical economists devise mathematically elegant hypotheses while paying little attention to the policy implications of these. In addition, neoclassical economists fail to engage in discourse with other paradigmatic schools. Generally, economists view their profession as, above all, a set o techniques. This perpetuates ignorance-squared in economics: a lack of concern for being ignorant of what it is one does not know.

Thompson, Herb, “Ignorance and Ideological Hegemony: A Critique of Neoclassical Economics,” Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, 8(1997): 291-305

Neoclassical economists devise mathematically elegant hypotheses while paying little attention to the policy implications of these. In addition, neoclassical economists fail to engage in discourse with other paradigmatic schools. Generally, economists view their profession as, above all, a set o techniques. This perpetuates ignorance-squared in economics: a lack of concern for being ignorant of what it is one does not know.

Thompson, Herb, “Ignorance and Ideological Hegemony: A Critique of Neoclassical Economics,” Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, 8(1997): 291-305

Neoclassical economists devise mathematically elegant hypotheses while paying little attention to the policy implications of these. In addition, neoclassical economists fail to engage in discourse with other paradigmatic schools. Generally, economists view their profession as, above all, a set o techniques. This perpetuates ignorance-squared in economics: a lack of concern for being ignorant of what it is one does not know.

IV.B. Avoidance of "Empty empiricism"

Mayer, Thomas, “Truth Versus Precision in Economics,” (Aldershot; Hants; UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 1993).

Mayer, Thomas, “Truth Versus Precision in Economics,” (Aldershot; Hants; UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 1993).

Mayer, Thomas, “Truth Versus Precision in Economics,” (Aldershot; Hants; UK: Edward Elgar Publishing; 1993).

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Minimal Statism and Metamodernism: A Reply to Jeffrey Friedman,” Critical Review, 6 (1 Dec 1992) pp. 107-112

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Procedural Justice 500 words,” Blackwell Encyclopedic Dictionary of Business Ethics 1998, new edition 2004 pp. 509-510

Payson, Steven, “The Quality of Economic Literature,” Quality Measurement in Economics: New Perspectives on the Evolution of Goods and Services, (Edward Elgar; 1994; pp. 198-207)

Payson, Steven, “The Quality of Economic Literature,” Quality Measurement in Economics: New Perspectives on the Evolution of Goods and Services, (Edward Elgar; 1994; pp. 198-207)

Payson, Steven, “The Quality of Economic Literature,” Quality Measurement in Economics: New Perspectives on the Evolution of Goods and Services, (Edward Elgar; 1994; pp. 198-207)

IV.C. Avoidance of "Empty discussion"

Kuttner, Robert, “The Poverty of Economics,” The Atlantic Monthly, February 1985; 74-84.

Kuttner, Robert, “The Poverty of Economics,” The Atlantic Monthly, February 1985; 74-84.

Kuttner, Robert, “The Poverty of Economics,” The Atlantic Monthly, February 1985; 74-84.

McCloskey, Deirdre N., “How To Be Human**Though an Economist,” Dearborn; MI: University of Michigan Press; 2000

Economics has become a boys' game in a sandbox. Two widely used methods in economics, existence-theorem mathematics and significance-testing statistics, are threatening the ability of economics to actually describe how the economy works. McCloskey argues that we should put the human back into this human science.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “How to be Human Though an Economist,” Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000

McCloskey, Deirdre N., “How To Be Human**Though an Economist,” Dearborn; MI: University of Michigan Press; 2000

Economics has become a boys' game in a sandbox. Two widely used methods in economics, existence-theorem mathematics and significance-testing statistics, are threatening the ability of economics to actually describe how the economy works. McCloskey argues that we should put the human back into this human science.

McCloskey, Deirdre N., “How To Be Human**Though an Economist,” Dearborn; MI: University of Michigan Press; 2000

Economics has become a boys' game in a sandbox. Two widely used methods in economics, existence-theorem mathematics and significance-testing statistics, are threatening the ability of economics to actually describe how the economy works. McCloskey argues that we should put the human back into this human science.

Ziliak, Stephen and Deirdre McCloskey, “Signifying Nothing: A Reply to Hoover and Siegler,” Journal of Economic Methodology, forthcoming March 2008

V. How Ideas are Recognized and Rewarded

V.A. What Enables Papers to Get Published

Enders, Walter and Gary Hoover, “Whose Line Is It? Plagiarism in Economics,” Journal of Economic Literature, XLII(2004): 487-493

This survey, regarding the instances of plagiarism reported by editors of economics journals, finds that 24 percent of journal editors encounter one case of plagiarism per year. However, less than 19% have a formal policy on plagiarism. Most believe that a code of ethics would benefit the economics profession.

Enders, Walter and Gary Hoover, “Whose Line Is It? Plagiarism in Economics,” Journal of Economic Literature, XLII(2004): 487-493

This survey, regarding the instances of plagiarism reported by editors of economics journals, finds that 24 percent of journal editors encounter one case of plagiarism per year. However, less than 19% have a formal policy on plagiarism. Most believe that a code of ethics would benefit the economics profession.

Enders, Walter and Gary Hoover, “Whose Line Is It? Plagiarism in Economics,” Journal of Economic Literature, XLII(2004): 487-493

This survey, regarding the instances of plagiarism reported by editors of economics journals, finds that 24 percent of journal editors encounter one case of plagiarism per year. However, less than 19% have a formal policy on plagiarism. Most believe that a code of ethics would benefit the economics profession.

Hodgson, Geoffrey M. and Harry Rothman, “The Editors and Authors of Economics Journals: A Case of Institutional Oligopoly?,” Economic Journal, 109 (February), 1999.

"This paper examines data on the institutional backgrounds of editors and authors of the top 30 economics journals, identi®ed by their 1995 citation impact. It is revealed, for example, that 70.8% of the journal editors were located in the United States, and twelve U.S. universities accounted for the location of more than 38.9%. Concerning journal article authors, 65.7% were located in U.S. institutions and twelve U.S. universities accounted for 21.8%. Arguably, the degree of institutional and geographical concentration of editors and authors may be unhealthy for innovative research in economics."

Hoover, Gary, “Game-Theoretical Theory of Plagiarism,” Atlantic Economic Journal, 34(2006): 449-454

Damage to an economist's reputation is recognized as the most significant incentive against plagiarism. However, current incentives in the economics profession make it rational to not report instances of plagiarism, thus avoiding the damage to one's reputation. This is harmful not only to the author who's work was plagiarized in the first place, but to the profession as a whole.

Hoover, Gary, “Game-Theoretical Theory of Plagiarism,” Atlantic Economic Journal, 34(2006): 449-454

Damage to an economist's reputation is recognized as the most significant incentive against plagiarism. However, current incentives in the economics profession make it rational to not report instances of plagiarism, thus avoiding the damage to one's reputation. This is harmful not only to the author who's work was plagiarized in the first place, but to the profession as a whole.

Hoover, Gary, “Game-Theoretical Theory of Plagiarism,” Atlantic Economic Journal, 34(2006): 449-454

Damage to an economist's reputation is recognized as the most significant incentive against plagiarism. However, current incentives in the economics profession make it rational to not report instances of plagiarism, thus avoiding the damage to one's reputation. This is harmful not only to the author who's work was plagiarized in the first place, but to the profession as a whole.

Klein, Daniel B. and Therese DiCola, “Institutional Ties of Journal of Development Economics Authors and Editors,” Econ Journal Watch1(2) 2004 pp.319-330

"Sociologists of science such as Richard Whitley explain that official institutions may have a profound influence on the character and organization of science. We examine the ties of authors and editorial officers of the Journal of Development Economics (2002) to the World Bank, the IMF, and so on. "Ties" includes past or current employment, consultancy, grant, publication and presentation. Regarding the 124 authorships, we find that 75 percent have ties to the "Big 8" official development institutions,and 84 percent to official development institutions more broadly defined. Of the 26 editorial officers, we find that all have ties to the Big 8, all but one with ties of employment consultancy , or grant. This article contains a link to the data (with individual identities redacted)."

Levitt, Steven, “Preston McAfee Shakes Things Up in Academic Publishing,” New York Times, July 31, 2007

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Economical Writing,” Economic Inquiry, 24 (2) Apr. 1985 pp.187-222

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Economical Writing,” UCLA Writing Program, Ellen Strenski ed.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Economical Writing,” Cross-Disciplinary Conversations About Writing, NY: St. Martin's Press 1989

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Economical Writing reprinted with revisions as The Writing of Economics,” Economical Writing, 1999 2nd ed.

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Writing of Economics,” NY: Macmillan, (1986) a 90 page libellus from the article "Economic Writing"

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Economical Writing revised from The Writing of Economics,” Prospect Heights III: Waveland Press, 2nd revised edition (1999).

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Review of M.C. LaFollete's Stealing Into Print,” Journal of Economic Literature, 32 (Sept. 1994) pp.1226-1229

Sutter, Daniel and Rex Pjesky, “Where Would Adam Smith Publish Today? The Near Absence of Math-free Research in Top Journals.,” Econ Journal Watch 4 (2) 2007 pp. 230-240

"Using papers published in 2003 and 2004, we measure the extent of math-free research in top economics journals. Of more than 1200 papers published in ten top journals, six percent met a weak criterion of math-free, three percent an intermediate criterion, and only 1.5 percent a strong criterion. General interest journals published more math-free papers than field journals. If Adam Smith were alive today, to survive he would in all likelihood need to learn math. His extensive mastery of literature, history, ethics, and rhetoric would ill-serve his career."

V.B. Are Ideas Recognized for the Right Reasons?

Coelho, Philip R.P., Frederick De Worken-Eley III and James E. McClure, “Decline in Critical Commentary, 1963-2004,” Econ Journal Watch 2(2) pp. 355-361

"Over the past four decades, top economics journals have virtually eliminated critical commentary (comments, replies, rejoinders, and the like). This article shows the data and discusses these steep declines in critical commentary. To the extent that critical commentary is beneficial to scientific inquiry, editorial opposition to critical commentary is detrimental to the advancement of economic knowledge."

Freedman, Craig and Rick Szostak, “Tales of Narcissus: The Looking Glass of Economic Science,” Nova Biomedical

"The Greek myth of Narcissus, like any other moral tale, warns its readers against the dangers of self absorption. In their new edited volume, Craig Freedman and Rick Szostak gather together a collection of fables and tales to warn the economics profession against parallel pitfalls in their own activities. Academics in this field have all too often been seduced by the dazzling reflection produced by their own theoretical constructs. This collection is meant to serve as required bedside reading for all economists, a serious if light-hearted look at the foibles currently plaguing the profession. Rather than committing the venial sin of didactic lecturing, the editors let economists speak for themselves in a series of reprinted articles. Intentionally or not, these articles illustrate the intractable blemishes currently disfiguring the face of economics. The reprints are by such noted economists as Blinder, Bronfenbrenner, Fair, Katzner, Leamer, Leijonhufvud, and others. This thought-provoking range of ideas is further supplemented by the editors who tease out the underlying issues by means of their own original contributions. As the editors note in concluding their introduction: We need to wean economics away from its narcissism, its tendency to exclude all those that don't share its own passions for formalism. Making the virtues out of our own shortcomings won't do the trick. Economics as a profession best serves itself and its community by becoming an inclusive science that stresses an ability to communicate rather than placing the onus for understanding on those outside our professional gates." (Amazon's Product Description, at http://www.amazon.com/Tales-Narcissus-Looking-Economic-Science/dp/1560728558 )

Klein, Daniel B. and Pedro B. Romero, “Model Building versus Theorizing: The Paucity of Theory in the Journal of Economic Theory,” Econ Journal Watch, 4(2): pp. 241-271.

"Drawing on the work of people with strong mainstream reputations, we distinguish model and theory. We argue that a model may qualify as theory only if it purports to answer three questions: Theory of what?, Why should we care?, What merit in your explanation? We examine the 66 regular articles appearing in the 2004 issues of Journal of Economic Theory—“the leading journal in economic theory” —and apply the three requirements. We make the assessment accountable by formulating six subtests and recording our scores in a detailed spreadsheet linked as an appendix; anyone may spot-check the spreadsheet to see if an article was scored unfairly. We find that 27 articles fail the first test (Theory of what?) and 58 articles fail at least one of the three requirements. Thus, 88 percent of the articles do not qualify as theory. (The 'pass' rates would be even lower if one were to exclude the special issue, and if one were to include the short notes.) We contend that the journal’s claim to scientific status is doubtful, as well as the very title of the journal. A truer title would be, Journal of Economic Model Building. More generally, we challenge calling model building 'theory.'"

Leontief, Wassily, “Theoretical Assumptions and Nonobserved Facts,” The American Economic Review, Vol. 61, No. 1 (Mar., 1971), pp. 1-7

This was an acceptance speech to the presidency of the American Economic Association. In the speech, Leontief (who went on to win the Nobel prize in economics three years later) notes, “The uneasiness … is caused not by the irrelevance of the practical problems to which present day economists address their efforts, but rather by the palpable inadequacy of the scientific means with which they try to solve them.” He also remarked, “Continued preoccupation with imaginary, hypothetical, rather than with observable reality has gradually led to a distortion of the informal valuation scale used in our academic community to assess and to rank the scientific performance of its members.”

Leontief, Wassily, “Theoretical Assumptions and Nonobserved Facts,” The American Economic Review, Vol. 61; No. 1. (Mar.; 1971); pp. 1-7

This was an acceptance speech to the presidency of the American Economic Association. In the speech, Leontief (who went on to win the Nobel prize in economics three years later) notes, �The uneasiness � is caused not by the irrelevance of the practical problems to which present day economists address their efforts, but rather by the palpable inadequacy of the scientific means with which they try to solve them.� He also remarked, �Continued preoccupation with imaginary, hypothetical, rather than with observable reality has gradually led to a distortion of the informal valuation scale used in our academic community to assess and to rank the scientific performance of its members.�

Leontief, Wassily, “Theoretical Assumptions and Nonobserved Facts,” The American Economic Review, Vol. 61; No. 1. (Mar.; 1971); pp. 1-7

This was an acceptance speech to the presidency of the American Economic Association. In the speech, Leontief (who went on to win the Nobel prize in economics three years later) notes, �The uneasiness � is caused not by the irrelevance of the practical problems to which present day economists address their efforts, but rather by the palpable inadequacy of the scientific means with which they try to solve them.� He also remarked, �Continued preoccupation with imaginary, hypothetical, rather than with observable reality has gradually led to a distortion of the informal valuation scale used in our academic community to assess and to rank the scientific performance of its members.�

List, John A., Charles A. Bailey, Patricia J. Euzent and Thomas L. Martin, “Academic Economists Behaving Badly? A Survey on Three Areas of Unethical Behavior,” Economic Inquiry, 39(2001): 162-170

Unethical behavior among academic economists is a problem, particularly in the expropriation of graduate student research or including an undeserving co-author on a research paper. Ultimately, policing research may best be addressed on the grassroots/university level, by controlling incentives such as appointments, tenure, and promotion. Further studies are needed to determine whether this unethical trend is rising or falling.

List, John A., Charles A. Bailey, Patricia J. Euzent and Thomas L. Martin, “Academic Economists Behaving Badly? A Survey on Three Areas of Unethical Behavior,” Economic Inquiry, 39(2001): 162-170

Unethical behavior among academic economists is a problem, particularly in the expropriation of graduate student research or including an undeserving co-author on a research paper. Ultimately, policing research may best be addressed on the grassroots/university level, by controlling incentives such as appointments, tenure, and promotion. Further studies are needed to determine whether this unethical trend is rising or falling.

List, John A., Charles A. Bailey, Patricia J. Euzent and Thomas L. Martin, “Academic Economists Behaving Badly? A Survey on Three Areas of Unethical Behavior,” Economic Inquiry, 39(2001): 162-170

Unethical behavior among academic economists is a problem, particularly in the expropriation of graduate student research or including an undeserving co-author on a research paper. Ultimately, policing research may best be addressed on the grassroots/university level, by controlling incentives such as appointments, tenure, and promotion. Further studies are needed to determine whether this unethical trend is rising or falling.

Nelson, Robert H., “Scholasticism versus Pietism: The Battle for the Soul of Economics,” Econ Journal Watch, Volume 1; Number 3; December 2004; pp. 473-497

Nelson, Robert H., “Economics As Religion: From Samuelson To Chicago And Beyond,” (University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press; 2001)

Market economics is best understood as a religion. When I first read this claim in a book by Robert Nelson . . . I had doubts. . . . [But] the more one thinks about the function of market economics in modern society, the stronger the case gets for treating it as a religion." —The Financial Times

Nelson, Robert H., “Scholasticism versus Pietism: The Battle for the Soul of Economics,” Econ Journal Watch, Volume 1; Number 3; December 2004; pp. 473-497

Nelson, Robert H., “Economics As Religion: From Samuelson To Chicago And Beyond,” (University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press; 2001)

Market economics is best understood as a religion. When I first read this claim in a book by Robert Nelson . . . I had doubts. . . . [But] the more one thinks about the function of market economics in modern society, the stronger the case gets for treating it as a religion. �The Financial Times

Nelson, Robert H., “Scholasticism versus Pietism: The Battle for the Soul of Economics,” Econ Journal Watch, Volume 1; Number 3; December 2004; pp. 473-497

Nelson, Robert H., “Economics As Religion: From Samuelson To Chicago And Beyond,” (University Park, Pa: Pennsylvania State University Press; 2001)

Market economics is best understood as a religion. When I first read this claim in a book by Robert Nelson . . . I had doubts. . . . [But] the more one thinks about the function of market economics in modern society, the stronger the case gets for treating it as a religion. �The Financial Times

VI. The Funding of Economic Research

VI.A. What Determines the Awarding of Grants?

White, Lawrence H., “The Federal Reserve System's Influence on Research in Monetary Economics,” Econ Journal Watch 2(2) 2005 pp. 325-354

"The Federal Reserve System is a major sponsor of monetary economics research by American economists. I provide some measures of the size of the Fed's research program (both inputs and published outputs)and consider how the Fed's sponsorship may directly and indirectly influence the character of acadmeic research in monetary economics. In particular, I raise the isuue of status quo bias in the Fed-sponsored research."

VII. Contracted Economic Studies

VII.A. Are Sound Methods Used?

VIII. Economic Statistics

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Beyond Merely Statistical Significance Statement of editorial policy,” Feminist Economics, 2000

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Cassandra's Open Letter to Her Economist Colleagues,” Eastern Economic Journal, 25 (3 Summer 1999)

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Loss Function Has Been Mislaid: The Rhetoric of Significance Tests,” American Economic Review, Supplement 75 (2 May 1985) pp.201-205

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Insignificance of Statistical Significance,” Scientific American, ( Apr. 1995) pp. 32-33

McCloskey, Deirdre, “"Why Economic Historians Should Stop Relying on Statistical Tests of Significance ..." [Continues],” Newsletter of the Cliometric Society, 2 (2 Nov 1986) pp.5-7

[Remainder of Title:] ... and Lead Economists and Historians into the Promised Land"

Ziliak, Stephen and Deirdre McCloskey, “The Cult of Statistical Significance: How the Standard Error is Costing Jobs, Justice, and Lives,” University of Michigan Press, 2007

From Preface: "Advanced empirical economics, which we've endured, taught, and written about for years, has become an exercise in hypothesis testing, and is broken. We're saying here that the brokenness extends to many other quantitative sciences—though notably—we could say significantly—not to physics and chemistry and geology. We don't claim to understand fully the sciences we survey. But we do understand their unhappy statistical rhetoric. It needs to change."

Ziliak, Stephen and Deirdre McCloskey, “Significance Redux,” Journal of Socio-Economics, Volume 33, Issue 5, November 2004, Pages 665-675.

"Leading theorists and econometricians agree with our two main points: first, that economic significance usually has nothing to do with statistical significance and, second, that a supermajority of economists do not explore economic significance in their research. The agreement from Arrow to Zellner on the two main points should by itself change research practice. This paper replies to our critics, showing again that economic significance is what science and citizens want and need."

Ziliak, Stephen and Deirdre McCloskey, “A Final Wordin the Symposium issue 3 The Bankruptcy of Statistical Significance,” Eastern Economic Journal, 18 (Summer 1992) pp.359-361) (also in other brief Academic Items [156] (2)

Ziliak, Stephen and Deirdre McCloskey, “The Standard Error of Regression,” Journal of Economic Literature, 34 (March 1996 ) pp.97-114

Ziliak, Stephen and Deirdre McCloskey, “Size Matters: The Standard Error of Regressions,” American Economic Review, 1990's

Ziliak, Stephen and Deirdre McCloskey, “Size Matters: The Standard Error of Regressions,” Journal of Socio-Economics, 33 pp. 527-546

It was the subject of a symposium pp.547-664 with comments by Arnold Zellner, Clive Granger, Edward Leamer, Joel Horowitz, Erik Thorbecke, Gerd Gigerenzer, Bruce Thompson, Morris Altman and others (from a presentation at the American Economic Association annual convention, January 2004, Kenneth Arrow presiding)

IX. The Job Market for Economists

Coupé, Tom, “What do we Know about Ourselves? On the Economics of Economics,” Kyklos

Economists already study an incredibly wide range of human activity. Economists can also use their tools to study the economics profession itself. Thus, the author studies the economists' behavior, focusing on three specific areas: education of economists, publication habits of economists, and the labor market of economists.

Coup�, Tom, “What do we Know about Ourselves? On the Economics of Economics,” Kyklos, Vol. 57; No. 2; pp. 197-215; May 2004

Economists already study an incredibly wide range of human activity. Economists can also use their tools to study the economics profession itself. Thus, the author studies the economists' behavior, focusing on three specific areas: education of economists, publication habits of economists, and the labor market of economists.

Coup�, Tom, “What do we Know about Ourselves? On the Economics of Economics,” Kyklos, Vol. 57; No. 2; pp. 197-215; May 2004

Economists already study an incredibly wide range of human activity. Economists can also use their tools to study the economics profession itself. Thus, the author studies the economists' behavior, focusing on three specific areas: education of economists, publication habits of economists, and the labor market of economists.

Klein, Daniel B., “The Ph.D. Circle in Academic Economics,” Econ Journal Watch

Adam Smith doubted an invisible hand in academia, saying that academia was prone to clubbish foolishness. From economics-department webpages, I collected data on Ph.D. origination of economics faculty. Using a ranking of 200 economics departments world-wide, I find that at the top departments 80-90 percent of faculty got their PhD at a top-35 department. The set of top-35 departments draws 76 percent of faculty from itself. The top-35 dominate the entire profession. Economics is more a monocentric cultural pyramid than a polycentric market.

Klein, Daniel B. and Eric Chiang, “Citation Counts and SSCI in Personnel Decisions: A Survey of Economics Departments,” Econ Watch Journal

From econpapers.repec.org/article/ejwvolone/166-174.htm This paper reports the results of a survey of economics department chairs regarding the importance of citation counts in personnel decisions. The 30 responses vary, some reporting virtually no importance of citation counts, but 15 respondents report that citation counts usually or always come up in promotion cases. Fourteen respondents report that the weight given to citation counts increased over the past decade, while one reports that it declined. . . . The survey also inquires about the importance of a journal’s inclusion in the Social Science Citation Index in deciding whether a publication is deemed “peer reviewed.” The results indicate that SSCI inclusion is important.

Klein, Daniel B., “The Ph.D. Circle in Academic Economics,” Econ Journal Watch, April 2005; pp. 133-148

From econpapers.repec.org/article/ejwvolone/2005133-148.htm : �Abstract: Adam Smith doubted an invisible hand in academia, saying that academia was prone to clubbish foolishness. From economics-department webpages, I collected data on Ph.D. origination of economics faculty. Using a ranking of 200 economics departments world-wide, I find that at the top departments 80-90 percent of faculty got their PhD at a top-35 department. The set of top-35 departments draws 76 percent of faculty from itself. The top-35 dominate the entire profession. Economics is more a monocentric cultural pyramid than a polycentric market.�

Klein, Daniel B. and Eric Chiang, “Citation Counts and SSCI in Personnel Decisions: A Survey of Economics Departments,” Econ Watch Journal, Volume 1; Number 1; April 2004; pp. 166-174.

From econpapers.repec.org/article/ejwvolone/166-174.htm : �Abstract: This paper reports the results of a survey of economics department chairs regarding the importance of citation counts in personnel decisions. The 30 responses vary, some reporting virtually no importance of citation counts, but 15 respondents report that citation counts usually or always come up in promotion cases. Fourteen respondents report that the weight given to citation counts increased over the past decade, while one reports that it declined. . . . The survey also inquires about the importance of a journal�s inclusion in the Social Science Citation Index in deciding whether a publication is deemed �peer reviewed.� The results indicate that SSCI inclusion is important.�

Klein, Daniel B., “The Ph.D. Circle in Academic Economics,” Econ Journal Watch, April 2005; pp. 133-148

From econpapers.repec.org/article/ejwvolone/2005133-148.htm : �Abstract: Adam Smith doubted an invisible hand in academia, saying that academia was prone to clubbish foolishness. From economics-department webpages, I collected data on Ph.D. origination of economics faculty. Using a ranking of 200 economics departments world-wide, I find that at the top departments 80-90 percent of faculty got their PhD at a top-35 department. The set of top-35 departments draws 76 percent of faculty from itself. The top-35 dominate the entire profession. Economics is more a monocentric cultural pyramid than a polycentric market.�

Klein, Daniel B. and Eric Chiang, “Citation Counts and SSCI in Personnel Decisions: A Survey of Economics Departments,” Econ Watch Journal, Volume 1; Number 1; April 2004; pp. 166-174.

From econpapers.repec.org/article/ejwvolone/166-174.htm : �Abstract: This paper reports the results of a survey of economics department chairs regarding the importance of citation counts in personnel decisions. The 30 responses vary, some reporting virtually no importance of citation counts, but 15 respondents report that citation counts usually or always come up in promotion cases. Fourteen respondents report that the weight given to citation counts increased over the past decade, while one reports that it declined. . . . The survey also inquires about the importance of a journal�s inclusion in the Social Science Citation Index in deciding whether a publication is deemed �peer reviewed.� The results indicate that SSCI inclusion is important.�

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Insanity of Letters of Recommendation,” Chronicle of Higher Education, Jan. 2002

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Poverty of Letters: The Crushing Case Against Outside Letters for Promotion,” Change , 20 (5 Sept.1988) pp. 7-9

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Career Courage,” Eastern Economic Journal, 24 (4 Fall 1998) pp. 525-528

McCloskey, Deirdre, “The Insanity of Letters of Recommendation,” EER, 2002 28 (1) pp.137-14-

Also in the Chronicle of Higher Education January 2002.

X. Economics and International Relations

McCloskey, Deirdre, “Breakthrough Books: The Market,” Lingua Franca, July/August 1995